Dr. Sun Yat-sen’s Mausoleum
Lying at the southern foot of Zhongshan Mountain in Nanjing, it is the mausoleum of Dr. Sun Yat-sen, the great forerunner of China’s democratic revolution. Built in line with the landform of the mountain, the mausoleum faces a flat land in the south and backs on to a green mountain peak, showing a well-conceived layout. The mausoleum is in the pattern of a “clock of freedom”, with a profound implied meaning.
Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum
Located in Dulongfu at the southern foot of Zhongshan Mountain, it is the tomb of the founding emperor of the Ming Dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang, and his Empress Ma. The construction of the mausoleum started in the Hongwu reign period of the Ming Dynasty, with a circumference of 22.5 km. It took over 30 years from the construction of the mausoleum to the emperor’s burial service. The existing architectural structures in the mausoleum include the Tablet pavilion, Sacred Way, Hall of Tablets, Xiaoling Hall, Square City Tower, Precious Dome and Soul Tower, presenting a gorgeous and magnificent view. As one of the largest imperial mausoleums in China, the Xiaoling Mausoleum has been included in the World Cultural Heritage List.
Confucius Temple and Qinhuai River Scenic Belt
On the southern and northern banks of the Qinhuai River in the city proper of Nanjing, the scenic belt consists of three architectural complexes, namely Confucius Temple, Palace of Learning and Examination Hall, which are usually called the Confucius Temple. The Inner Qinhuai River is anchored by the gaily-painted pleasure boats. Today the Confucius Temple has become one of the 40 top tourist attractions in China. The main tourist attractions here include the Great Perfection Hall, Examination Hall of South China, in addition to many shopping malls and shops selling tourist souvenirs and delicacy streets.
In the Ming Dynasty, the Zhonghua Gate was called Jubao (Treasure Gathering) Gate, being the largest castle-style gate of the 13 gates on the ancient city walls of Nanjing. Situated in the due south of Nanjing, the Zhonghua Gate shows a well-conceived structure, a unique design and three urn cities, which are linked with each other by four gates. The gate-tower of the Zhonghua Gate is 118.5 meters wide from east to west, 128 meters long from south to north, and has 27 caves for storing military materials and holding soldiers during the wartime.
It is the oldest garden in Nanjing, with a history of over 600 years. The original garden was destroyed in the war, and the present garden is divided into two parts: the eastern part and western part. Zhanyuan Garden contains two weird rocks of the Song Dynasty, Immortal Peak and Leaning Cloud Peak. The main architectural structure in the garden is the Jingmiao Hall, which divides the garden into two parts. The southern part is small and noisy and the northern part is large and quiet. Each part has an artificial hill and ponds, and the two parts are linked with each other with streams; and waters lie in front of the artificial hills, setting each other off and forming a pleasant contrast.
Egret Islet Park
It was originally the residence of the descendants of King Zhongshan Xu Da of the Ming Dynasty. During the Yongle reign period (1403-1424) of the Ming Dynasty, Empress Renxiao, the eldest daughter of Xu Da, granted a piece of land on the eastern side of the king’s residence by the city wall to the Xu family to reward Xu’s outstanding meritorious service. This park is well known for the islets on water which are partly hidden and partly visible, and beautiful scenery of lakes and hills; hence it is a bright pearl in the Qinhuai River Scenic Belt.
East Water Pass
On the western side of the Tongjimen Bridge on Mid Longpan Road, it is a water pass and a city wall as well, showing an integrated whole; hence it is known as a masterpiece in the Chinese architectural history. In the past, it was called Shangshui Gate or Tongji Gate. First constructed in 923 during the Tang Dynasty, it is the entrance of the Qinhuai River to Nanjing. In the early Ming Dynasty, when Zhu Yuanzhang, the founding emperor of the Ming Dynasty, had the Yingtianfu City built, the upper and lower water passes were rebuilt into Tongji Water Pass and Sanshan Pass (or West Water Pass). Both passes have the brick-and-stone structures, and the East Water Pass is more magnificent.
Rain Flower Terrace Scenic Zone
This scenic zone is to the south of the Zhonghua Gate in Nanjing and its core part is the Rain Flower Terrace. The Rain Flower Terrace is a picturesque hillock surrounded by pine and cypress tress, about 100 meters high and 3.5 km long. The hilltop is in the shape of a terrace, which consists of three parts: East Ridge which is also called Plum Ridge, Central Ridge which is known as Phoenix Terrace Ridge, and West Ridge extending to the outside of Andemen. The scenic zone is composed of the Scenic and Historic Interest Zone, Cemetery for Martyrs, Rain Flower Stone Culture Zone, Rain Flower Tea Culture Zone, Recreation Zone and Ecological Dense Forest Zone. In recent years, over 20 places of scenic and cultural interest have been rebuilt, such as the Rain Flower Pavilion, Shrine to the Two Royal Officials, Mumo Pavilion, Emperor Qianlong’s Imperial Tablet Pavilion, Tombs of Revolutionaries and Horses of the Revolution of 1911, Sweet Dew Well, Xiyuan Garden, Yi Garden and Plum Ridge.
Lying at the foot of Zhongshan Mountain in the northeast of Nanjing City, Xuanwu Lake covers an area of 472 hectares, including 368 hectares of the water surface. It is the oldest and largest comprehensive park in Nanjing. The park has five islets linked by causeways, each having a very attractive and unique flavor. Huan Islet is famous for its willow trees in the mist in spring; Liang Islet is noted for its chrysanthemums in autumn; Cui Islet wins fame for its varieties of trees; Ling Islet attracts people with mountain haze; and Ying Islet is popular for its cherry blossom.
The Presidential Palace is located on Changjiang Road, Nanjing. On Jan. 1, 1912, Sun Yat-sen took the oath of office of the provisional president of the Republic of China here, founding the first state power of republic in Chinese history: the Provisional Government of the Republic of China. It has been converted into the Nanjing Museum of Chinese Modern Historical Sites. With an area of 90,000 square meters, the museum is composed of three zones: the Central Zone consists of the National Government, the Presidential Office and the agencies under its jurisdiction; the West Zone is the provisional president’s palace, the Secretariat, West Garden and General Staff Headquarters; and the East Zone includes the old site of The Executive, the stable and East Garden.
Situated on East Zhongshan Road, the Nanjing Museum is composed of three basic exhibitions which are open to the public all year round: the Exhibition of the 5,000-year Civilization of the Upper and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River, the Exhibition of China’s History, Ethnic Groups and Culture, and Jiangsu Archaeological Display, plus some temporary exhibitions. The museum contains over 4o0,000 various types of cultural relics and artworks of the past ages, of which 10 are national cultural relics and over 1,000 national first-class cultural relics, involving bronze wares, calligraphic works, paintings, pottery and porcelain wares, furniture, documents and silk fabrics.
Yuejiang Tower Scenic Zone
The scenic zone is on Lion Hill to the northwest of the downtown of Nanjing and borders the Yangtze River. It is a well-known tourism zone integrating cultural sites and scenic spots. The historic sites in the scenic zone include the Yuejiang Tower (River-Enjoying Tower), ancient forts, the site where Sun Yat-sen once viewed the river, Wujun Tunnel, the ancient city wall, five-colored earth, Jinghai Temple, etc.
Tangshan and Tangquan Hot Springs
The volcanic magma movements in the remote antiquity left the precious hot spring resources for Nanjing, of which Tangshan and Tangquan Hot Springs are the most celebrated. Tangshan Town in Jiangning of Nanjing ranks first of the four major hot spring recuperation zones in China, well known for the undulating green mountains, limpid springs, high-quality spring water and a picturesque environment. Tangquan (Hot Spring) Town, a hot spring holiday resort in Pukou District of Nanjing, got its name because it has a large number of hot springs. In history it was called Xiangquan (Fragrant Spring), and was the land of hot spring, featuring “a grass-root saint, 10-mile hot springs, 100-mile old mountains, 1,000-year-old gingko trees, 10,000 egrets, and 100 million cedrus”.